History Of Ancient India
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Points To Be Discussed
- Pre – Historic Age
- Dawn Of Civilization
India’s ancient history and culture is dynamic right from the start of human civilization.
It begins with a mysterious culture along the Indus and in farming communities within the southern lands of India.
The history of India is punctuated by constant integration of migrating people with the various cultures that surround India.
By the top of the fourth millennium BC, India had emerged as a neighborhood of highly developed civilization.
Pre – Historic Age
A. Palaeolithic Or Old Stone Age
This age is also known as the Old Stone Age Period.
It began about 2,50,000 years ago.
During this age man more or less lived like an animal, led an unsettled life and had no knowledge of cultivation or the use of fire or metals.
The only tools to mankind were crude stone implements which were used by them to hunt animals for food.
B. Neolithic Or New Stone Age
This age is also known as the New Stone Age Period
It comes before the Mesolithic Age and after the Chalcolithic Age.
The main crops grown were ragi, horse grain , cotton, rice, wheat, and barley. The people of this age domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats.
People used microlithic blades additionally to tools made from polished stones also as bones. They used axes, adzes, chisels, and celts.
Neolithic Age is critical for its Megalithic Architecture.
People of this era lived in circular or rectangular houses which were made up of mud and reed. At some places they lived in mud-brick houses.
The oldest Neolithic settlement within the Indian Subcontinent was Mehrgarh which is found in Baluchistan, a province of Pakistan.
Main Neolithic sites in were Jarf el Ahmar and Tell Abu Hureyra in Syria
Dawn Of Civilization
A. The Indus Valley Civilization
The History of India begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization, more precisely referred to as Harappan Civilization.
It emerged around 2,500 BC in the western a part of South Asia .
The Indus Valley was home to the most important of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India and China.
The Indus valley civilization was basically an urban civilization and therefore the people lived in well-planned and well-built towns, which were also the centers for trade.
The ruins of Mohenjodaro and Harappa show that these were magnificent merchant cities-well planned, scientifically laid, and well taken care of.
They consumed vegetables and fruits and ate mutton, pork and eggs also . Evidences also show that they wore cotton also as woolen garments.
B. Vedic Civilization
The Vedic civilization is that the earliest civilization within the history of ancient India.
The Vedic Civilization flourished along the river Saraswati, during a region that now consists of the fashionable Indian states of Haryana and Punjab.
The Ramayana and Mahabharata were the 2 great epics of this era .
C. The Buddhist Era
During the life time of Lord Gautam Buddha, sixteen great powers (Mahajanpadas) existed within the 7th and early 6th centuries BC.
Among the more important republics were the Sakyas of Kapilavastu and therefore the Licchavis of Vaishali.
Besides the republics, there have been monarchical states, among which the important ones were Kaushambi (Vatsa), Magadha, Kosala and Avanti.
However, there have been distinct signs of the republican states while those under the monarchs were expanding.
Buddha, whose original name was Siddhartha Gautama, was the founding father of Buddhism, the faith.
Therefore the doctrine that evolved into an excellent culture throughout much of southern and eastern Asia.
D. Alexander’s Invasion
Alexander invaded India in the year 326 BC , after crossing the river Indus he went towards Taxila.
The Indians were defeated within the fierce battle, albeit they fought with elephants, which the Macedonians had never before seen.
Alexander captured Porus and, just like the other local rulers he had defeated, allowed him to still govern his territory.
The Macedonian officers rescued him during a close call from the village.
E. The Mauryan Empire
The period of the Mauryan Empire (322 BC-185 BC) marked a replacement epoch within the history of India.
It had been a period of unification of the territories which lay as fragmented kingdoms.
He later overthrew the facility of Nandas at Magadha with the help of Kautilya, and founded an excellent Mauryan empire in 322 BC.
The Kalinga war witnessed terrible manslaughter and destruction.
The sufferings and atrocities of the battlefield lacerated the guts of Ashoka.
He made a resolve to not wage war any longer .
He realised the wickedness of worldly conquest and therefore the great thing about moral and spiritual triumph.
F. End of the Mauryan Empire
Ashoka, succeeded by weak rulers encouraged the provinces to proclaim independence.
The foremost famous among the Kushana kings was Kanishka (125 A.D.-162 A.D.), who was the third within the Kushana dynasty.
The Kushana rule continued till the center of 3rd century A.D.
G. Gupta Dynasty
After the Kushanas, the Gupta’s were the foremost important dynasty.
The primary famous king of the Gupta dynasty was Ghatotkacha’s son Chandragupta I.
This marriage was a turning point within the lifetime of Chandragupta I.
He got Pataliputra in dowry from the Lichhavis.
From Pataliputra, he laid the inspiration of his empire and began conquering many neighboring states with the assistance of the Licchavis.
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